The following are the two fundamental principles of surveying which should be kept in view while determining the relative position of points on the surface of the earth.
1) To work from whole to part.
The working from whole to part is done in surveying in order to ensure that errors and mistakes of one portion do not effect the remaining portion.
2) To fix the postion of new stations by at least two independent process. The new stations are fixed from points already fixed by linear measurements, angular measurements or by both linear and angular measurements.